Nutrition is the study of food in relation to health. it is a vital component to overall wellness and health. nutrition, also called nourishment, is the provision to cells and organisms of the materials necessary in the form of food to support life. our food is made up of essential, natural substances called nutrients.

Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses nutrients, and the relationship between diet, health and disease. it also focuses on how disease, conditions, and problems can be prevented or reduced with a health diet. consuming a sensible balanced diet can help us to achieve optimal health throughout life.


There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins,vitamins and water. these nutrients can be grouped as-

    • macronutrients
    • micronutrients

The macronutrients are needed in large quantities,e.g. carbohydrates, fat, and proteins and are building blocks of the body. the micronutrients, e.g. minerals and vitamins are needed in tiny quantities and are crucial for their role in metabolic pathways and in enhancing immunity.

Why nutrition is important?

Eating a balanced diet is vital for good health and wellbeing. Food provides our bodies with the energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and function properly. We need a wide variety of different foods to provide the right amounts of nutrients for good health.

Enjoyment of a healthy diet can also be one of the great cultural pleasures of life.


Malnutrition involves a dietary deficiency. malnutrition results from a poor diet or a lack food. it happens when the intake of nutrients or energy is too high, too low, or poorly balanced. the term malnutrition refers to both undernutrition as well as overnutrition.

undernutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. sometimes the terms malnutrition and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) are used interchangeably with undernutrition.

Overnutrition is caused by overindulgence or excessive intake of specific nutrients. overnutrition can result in obesity and being overweight.


Nutrients Deficiency Excess
Calories Starvation, marasmus Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease
Simple carbohydrates None Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease
Complex carbohydrates None Obesity, cardiovascular disease (high glycemic index foods)
Protein Kwashiorkor Rabbit starvation
Saturated fat Low testosterone levels, vitamin deficiencies. Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Trans fat None Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Unsaturated fat Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency Obesity, cardiovascular disease
Vitamin A Xerophthalmia and night blindness Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)
Vitamin B1 Beri-Beri ?
Vitamin B2 Skin and corneal lesions ?
Niacin Pellagra Dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects
Vitamin B12 Pernicious anemia ?
Vitamin C Scurvy Diarrhea causing dehydration
Vitamin D Rickets, Hypovitaminosis D Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation)
Vitamin E Neurological disease Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)
Vitamin K Hemorrhage Liver damage
Omega-3 fats Cardiovascular Disease Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke, reduced glycemic control among diabetics
Omega-6 fats None Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer
Cholesterol None Cardiovascular Disease
Calcium Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias Fatigue, depression, confusion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis, increased urination, kidney stones
Magnesium Hypertension Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension
Potassium Hypokalemia, cardiac arrhythmias Hyperkalemia, palpitations
Sodium Hyponatremia Hypernatremia, hypertension
Trace minerals
Iron Anemia Cirrhosis, Hereditary hemochromatosis, heart disease
Iodine Goiter, hypothyroidism Iodine toxicity (goiter)


Good nutrition is one of the key to a healthy life. you can improve your health by keeping a balanced diet.

Balanced diet is defined as nutritionally adequate and appropriate intake of food items that provide all the nutrients in required amounts and proper proportions.

A combination of carbohydrate rich food ( any cereal, fruits and / or vegetable), a protein source (milk and milk products, pulse, egg, meat, fish, nuts) and a fat (visible oil or ghee) and sugar or salt should be used to make nutritionally adequate complementary food or feed.

A balanced diet should be consumed by children and adolescents to ensure proper growth and development and stay healthy and disease free. a balanced diet contains 55-60% calories from carbohydrates, 10-12% proteins and 25-30% fat.

balanced nutrition and regular exercise are good for your health. these habits can help you lose or maintain weight.

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