Nutrition is the study of food in relation to health. it is a vital component to overall wellness and health. nutrition, also called nourishment, is the provision to cells and organisms of the materials necessary in the form of food to support life. our food is made up of essential, natural substances called nutrients.
Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses nutrients, and the relationship between diet, health and disease. it also focuses on how disease, conditions, and problems can be prevented or reduced with a health diet. consuming a sensible balanced diet can help us to achieve optimal health throughout life.
TYPES OF NUTRITION
There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins,vitamins and water. these nutrients can be grouped as-
The macronutrients are needed in large quantities,e.g. carbohydrates, fat, and proteins and are building blocks of the body. the micronutrients, e.g. minerals and vitamins are needed in tiny quantities and are crucial for their role in metabolic pathways and in enhancing immunity.
Why nutrition is important?
Eating a balanced diet is vital for good health and wellbeing. Food provides our bodies with the energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and function properly. We need a wide variety of different foods to provide the right amounts of nutrients for good health.
Enjoyment of a healthy diet can also be one of the great cultural pleasures of life.
Malnutrition involves a dietary deficiency. malnutrition results from a poor diet or a lack food. it happens when the intake of nutrients or energy is too high, too low, or poorly balanced. the term malnutrition refers to both undernutrition as well as overnutrition.
undernutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. sometimes the terms malnutrition and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) are used interchangeably with undernutrition.
Overnutrition is caused by overindulgence or excessive intake of specific nutrients. overnutrition can result in obesity and being overweight.
ILLNESS CAUSED BY IMPROPER NUTRIENT CONSUMPTION
|Calories||Starvation, marasmus||Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease|
|Simple carbohydrates||None||Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease|
|Complex carbohydrates||None||Obesity, cardiovascular disease (high glycemic index foods)|
|Saturated fat||Low testosterone levels, vitamin deficiencies.||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Trans fat||None||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Unsaturated fat||Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Vitamin A||Xerophthalmia and night blindness||Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)|
|Vitamin B2||Skin and corneal lesions||?|
|Niacin||Pellagra||Dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects|
|Vitamin B12||Pernicious anemia||?|
|Vitamin C||Scurvy||Diarrhea causing dehydration|
|Vitamin D||Rickets, Hypovitaminosis D||Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation)|
|Vitamin E||Neurological disease||Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)|
|Vitamin K||Hemorrhage||Liver damage|
|Omega-3 fats||Cardiovascular Disease||Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke, reduced glycemic control among diabetics|
|Omega-6 fats||None||Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer|
|Calcium||Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias||Fatigue, depression, confusion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis, increased urination, kidney stones|
|Magnesium||Hypertension||Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension|
|Potassium||Hypokalemia, cardiac arrhythmias||Hyperkalemia, palpitations|
|Iron||Anemia||Cirrhosis, Hereditary hemochromatosis, heart disease|
|Iodine||Goiter, hypothyroidism||Iodine toxicity (goiter)|
Good nutrition is one of the key to a healthy life. you can improve your health by keeping a balanced diet.
Balanced diet is defined as nutritionally adequate and appropriate intake of food items that provide all the nutrients in required amounts and proper proportions.
A combination of carbohydrate rich food ( any cereal, fruits and / or vegetable), a protein source (milk and milk products, pulse, egg, meat, fish, nuts) and a fat (visible oil or ghee) and sugar or salt should be used to make nutritionally adequate complementary food or feed.
A balanced diet should be consumed by children and adolescents to ensure proper growth and development and stay healthy and disease free. a balanced diet contains 55-60% calories from carbohydrates, 10-12% proteins and 25-30% fat.
balanced nutrition and regular exercise are good for your health. these habits can help you lose or maintain weight.